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Vol. 18. Issue 5.
Pages 273-278 (May 2022)
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Vol. 18. Issue 5.
Pages 273-278 (May 2022)
Original Article
Diffuse Peripheral Enthesitis in Metabolic Syndrome: A Retrospective Clinical and Power Doppler Ultrasound Study
Entesitis periférica difusa en el síndrome metabólico: estudio clínico retrospectivo y de ecografía Power Doppler
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Paolo Falsetti
Corresponding author
paolo.falsetti@virgilio.it

Corresponding author.
, Edoardo Conticini, Caterina Baldi, Marco Bardelli, Luca Cantarini, Bruno Frediani
Rheumatology Unit, University of Siena, Santa Maria alle Scotte Hospital, Siena, Italy
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Table 1. Clinical-anthropometric parameters and ultrasound findings in patients with metabolic syndrome and in controls.
Table 2. Clinical-anthropometric parameters of patients with metabolic syndrome and correlations with ultrasound findings.
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Abstract
Objectives

To investigate peripheral enthesitis with power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) in patients presenting low back pain (LBP) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in comparison with patients with only LBP, to correlate US scores with clinical-anthropometric characteristics, and to define any relationship between enthesitis and concurrent diffuse idiopathic hyperostosis syndrome (DISH).

Methods

Sixty outpatients with LBP and MetS, evaluated with multi-site entheseal PDUS, scoring inflammatory and structural damage changes, were retrospectively analyzed. A group of 60 subjects with LBP, without MetS and evaluated with the same protocol, was analyzed as the control group.

Results

Patients showed overweight (BMI 29.8) and low-grade inflammatory state (C-reactive protein [CRP] 0.58mg/dL, erythrosedimentation rate [ESR] 20.2mm/h). Enthesitis was demonstrated in 52 (86%) patients (17.6% entheses), and in 8 controls (13.3%) (p<.00001). PD signals (15% of patients) were associated with entheseal pain (p=.0138). US scores correlated with body mass index (BMI), pain, type 2 diabetes. In 28 (46%) patients a concurrent DISH was diagnosed, correlating with older age (p<.0001), CRP (p=.0428), ESR (p=.0069) and PDUS scores (p=.0312 inflammatory, p=.0071 structural). MetS had a strong association (OR 4.375, p=.0007) with concurrent DISH.

Conclusions

Diffuse peripheral enthesitis is very common in MetS. Almost half of MetS patients can have a concurrent diagnosis of DISH; they are older, with higher inflammation, and higher PDUS enthesitis scores.

Keywords:
Diffuse idiopathic hyperostosis syndrome
Enthesitis
Metabolic syndrome
Power Doppler ultrasound
Resumen
Objetivos

Estudiar la entesitis periférica con ecografía Power Doppler (PDUS) en pacientes que presentan dolor lumbar (DL) y síndrome metabólico (SM), en comparación con los pacientes con DL únicamente, para correlacionar las puntuaciones ecográficas con las características clínico-antroprométicas, y definir cualquier relación entre entesitis y síndrome de hiperostosis idiopática difusa (DISH).

Métodos

Se evaluaron 60 pacientes con DL y SM mediante PDUS para entesitis de múltiples sitios, valorando retrospectivamente los cambios inflamatorios y de daños estructurales. Un grupo de 60 sujetos con DL y sin SM fue evaluado utilizando el mismo protocolo, como grupo control.

Resultados

Los pacientes reflejaron sobrepeso (IMC 29,8) y estado inflamatorio de bajo grado (proteína C reactiva [PCR] 0,58 mg/dL, tasa de eritrosedimentación [TES] 20,2 mm/h). Se demostró entesitis en 52 (86%) pacientes (17,6% entesis), y ocho controles (13,3%) (p < 0,00001). Las señales PD (15% de pacientes) estuvieron asociadas a dolor debido a entesitis (p = 0,0138). Las puntuaciones ecográficas se correlacionaron con índice de masa corporal (IMC), dolor y diabetes tipo 2. En 28 (46%) pacientes se diagnosticó DISH concurrente, correlacionado con edad avanzada (p < 0,0001), PCR (p = 0,0428), TES (p = 0,0069) y puntuaciones PDUS (p = 0,0312 inflamatoria, p = 0,0071 estructural). El SM tuvo una fuerte asociación (OR 4,375, p = 0,0007) con DISH concurrente.

Conclusiones

La entesitis periférica difusa es muy común en el SM. Casi la mitad de los pacientes con SM pueden tener diagnóstico concurrente de DISH; son pacientes de edad avanzada, con mayor inflamación, y mayores puntuaciones de entesitis mediante PDUS.

Palabras clave:
Síndrome de hiperostosis idiopática difusa
Entesitis
Síndrome metabólico
Ecografía Power Doppler

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