Reumatología Clínica Reumatología Clínica
Reumatol Clin 2007;3:101-9 - Vol. 3 Núm.3 DOI: 10.1016/S1699-258X(07)73676-8
Original
Déficit mnésicos y perceptivos en la fibromialgia y la artritis reumatoide
Cognition and perception deficits in fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis
Lola Roldán-Tapia??, , Rosa Cánovas-López, José Cimadevilla, Matías Valverde
Departamento de Neurociencia y Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad de Almería. Almería. España
Recibido 15 noviembre 2006, Aceptado 15 febrero 2007
Resumen
Introducción

El deterioro cognitivo en los pacientes con dolor crónico es hoy día un tema de gran interés clínico, debido a que estas personas con frecuencia se quejan de problemas cognitivos.

Objetivo

Investigar las capacidades de atención, perceptivas y de memoria visuoespacial en los pacientes con dolor crónico en comparación con un grupo control y evaluar si entre estos pacientes hay diferencias, teniendo en cuenta las características de la propia enfermedad y la capacidad de reserva cognitiva.

Material y métodos

Se seleccionó a 2 grupos de pacientes, enfermos de fibromialgia y artritis reumatoide con corta duración de la enfermedad, y se los comparó con un grupo control. Todos los sujetos completaron un protocolo de exploración de memoria visual y espacial, velocidad de procesamiento, memoria de trabajo, visuopercepción, atención y orientación. Para todos ellos se obtuvo una medida de reserva cognitiva.

Resultados

Los pacientes con dolor crónico presentan una peor ejecución cognitiva que los controles. Los pacientes con artritis ejecutan la tarea peor que los de fibromialgia cuando requiere mayor velocidad de procesamiento visuomotor y un déficit en la integración en tareas visuoperceptivas. Los enfermos de fibromialgia obtuvieron peores puntuaciones en las tareas de memoria espacial y orientación.

Conclusiones

Los pacientes aquejados de fibromialgia y artritis tienen déficit aun cuando la cronicidad de la enfermedad sea breve. Dicho déficit parece no explicarse por efectos colaterales de dichas afecciones, ya que los perfiles cognitivos no son similares y aparecen desde el inicio de la enfermedad.

Resumen
Introduction

Cognitive disturbance in patients with fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis is today a topic of a great clinical interest, largely due to the fact that these persons often complain about cognitive problems.

Objective

This study is aimed to assess the visuospatial memory, attention and perceptive capacities in chronic pain patients.

Material and methods

Groups were constituted by fibromyalgia patients and rheumatoid arthritis patients, as well as a control group.

All the subjects completed a battery of visual and spa-tial memory, speed of processing, working memory, attention, orientation and visuoperceptive abilities. A cognitive reserve measurement was obtained.

Results

Results show that chronic pain patients displayed worse cognitive performance than controls. Moreover, arthritis patients execute poorly when compared to the group of fibromyalgia in tasks that demand visuoperceptive integration and visuomotor processing. Patients suffering fibromyalgia obtained worse punctuations than those with arthritis in spatial memory and spatial orientation tasks.

Conclusions

Both groups developed important cognitive deficits, which cannot be explained by the collateral effects of such pathologies, because cognitive profiles are not similar and appear from the beginning of the disease.

Palabras clave
Alteraciones neuropsicológicas, Artritis reumatoide, Fibromialgia, Memoria, Neuropsicología, Reserva cognitiva
Key words
Neurpsycologic alterations, Rheumatoid arthritis, Fibromyalgia, Memory, Neuropsycology, Cognitive reserve
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Parte de este trabajo ha sido financiado por el proyecto SEJ2005-05067/PSIC

Correspondencia: Dra. L. Roldán Tapia. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación II. Universidad de Almería. Ctra. de Sacramento, s/n. 04120 La Cañada de San Urbano. Almería. España. (Lola Roldán-Tapia mdroldan@ual.es)
Copyright © 2007. Elsevier España S.L. Barcelona
Reumatol Clin 2007;3:101-9 - Vol. 3 Núm.3 DOI: 10.1016/S1699-258X(07)73676-8