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Vol. 6. Issue 5.
Pages 268-272 (September - October 2010)
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Vol. 6. Issue 5.
Pages 268-272 (September - October 2010)
Continuing medical education
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Urinary sediment analysis
Análisis de sedimento urinario
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Martha E. Baños-Laredo, Carlos A. Núñez-Álvarez
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nuac80df@yahoo.com.mx

Corresponding author.
, Javier Cabiedes*
Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Laboratorio de Inmunología, Departamento de Inmunología y Reumatología, Mexico City, Mexico
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Abstract

Urinary analysis is one of the most requested tests in the clinical laboratory. This test includes the physical, chemical and microscopic analysis of urine. This last one allows for the observation of urinary sediment (US) in search of formed elements (cellular cast, leukocytes, etc.), with different diagnostic uses. Urinary analysis can be assessed by manual or automated methods. In the laboratory diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, US analysis is mainly oriented towards the assessment of renal function in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) as this is a common clinical manifestation associated to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Additionally, its value lies mainly for diagnostic criteria and evaluation of kidney injury, as well as for several damage indexes directed to patients with SLE. In the last years, several groups have sought to establish new urinary biomarkers of kidney damage in patients with SLE; however, this requires a greater number of studies to determine their true diagnostic value in this patients group.

Keywords:
Urinary sediment (US)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Lupus nephritis (LN)
Resumen

El examen general de orina es una de las pruebas más solicitadas dentro del laboratorio de análisis clínicos e incluye el análisis físico, químico y análisis microscópico. En este último, se analiza el sedimento urinario en búsqueda de distintos elementos formes (leucocitos, cilindros, etc.) con diferente utilidad diagnóstica. El análisis de sedimento urinario se puede valorar mediante métodos manuales y automatizados. En el diagnóstico por el laboratorio de las enfermedades autoinmunes el análisis de sedimento urinario está principalmente orientado hacia el apoyo y valoración renal en pacientes con nefritis lúpica, una de las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes en pacientes con lupus eritematoso generalizado. Adicionalmente, su utilidad radica fundamentalmente en su valoración en la mayoría de los criterios diagnósticos y de afección renal, así como en los diferentes índices de daño en pacientes con lupus eritematoso generalizado. En los últimos años, diversos grupos de investigación han buscado nuevos biomarcadores urinarios de afección renal en pacientes con lupus eritematoso generalizado, sin embargo se requiere un mayor número de estudios para determinar su verdadero valor diagnóstico en este grupo de pacientes.

Palabras clave:
Sedimento urinario (SU)
Lupus eritematoso generalizado (LEG)
Nefritis lúpica (NL)
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